Jonathan Swift was an author, journalist, and political activist best known for his satirical novel Gulliver's Travels and for his satirical essay on the Irish famine, "A Modest Proposal."
Born of English parents in Dublin, Ireland, Swift studied at Kilkenny Grammar School and at Trinity College in Dublin. The abdication of King James II drove him to England. During his time in England, Swift realized his great talent for satire and wrote A Tale of a Tub and "The Battle of the Books," published in 1704. Swift also decided upon a career in the clergy. When he returned to Ireland, Swift became a member of the Anglican clergy, ordained in the Church of Ireland.
During the reign of Queen Anne (1702-14), Swift visited London several times, making a name for himself as a talented essayist. He began his political career as a part of the Whig political party but in 1710 switched sides, becoming a Tory and taking over the Tory journal The Examiner. Swift was disgusted by the Whigs' aversion to the Anglican Church and could not stand for the party's desire to do away with the Test Act, which kept many non-Anglicans from holding offices in government. Swift focused his time as a Tory on supporting their cause by writing lengthy pamphlets and essays on religion and politics, continuing to satirize those with different views. In 1713 Swift was offered the deanship of St. Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin. When Queen Anne died in 1714, the Tories came under fire, so Swift lost favor in London and greater England. He begrudgingly resigned himself to living full-time in Ireland.
In 1724 Swift led the Irish people in their resistance against the English, who continued to oppress them. He wrote many public letters and political pieces with the purpose of rallying the people. One of his most famous essays, "A Modest Proposal," satirically suggests that the Irish solve their problems of starvation and overpopulation by eating their young. Swift also engaged in extensive commentary on religion, though these works are not much read today. Even though Swift's identity was widely known by the citizens of Dublin, no one came forward to report him when a 300-pound reward was offered for his arrest.
Swift is also known for Gulliver's Travels, a book of fantasy, satire, and political allegory, much like his other, shorter works. He wrote Gulliver's Travels in 1725, and it was published in 1726. The book was a great success throughout the British Empire, and it contributed to Swift's fame and legitimacy as a writer and social commentator.
For the majority of his life, Swift was a victim of Meniere's disease, which affects balance and hearing and causes nausea and dizziness. When Swift was about 72 years old, his disease began to keep him from his duties and social life. He became withdrawn and deeply depressed. Swift died in October 1745. He was buried in St. Patrick's Cathedral, where he had worked as dean.
Swift was a great friend of Alexander Pope, a fellow satirist best known for "Rape of the Lock." In a letter to Pope, Swift once called himself a misanthrope, but it seems more likely that he was simply frustrated by people who chose not to use the logic and reason they possessed.
Anne E. London (born December 31, 1957, in southern California) is an American artist and conservationist. Her art was greatly affected by a trip to a refuge for retired media animals, after which she started to focus on doing dramatic pieces that provide emotive portraits of wild animals, especially endangered species. She lives in Mandeville,Louisiana and works primarily with charcoal, watercolor, and engravings. London has established her reputation through producing art for non-profit wildlife preservation organizations and through showing and selling her work at art fairs across the United States.
She travels to Africa annually to continue her conservation work and draw her subjects.
London studied graphic arts under Saul Bernstein at Southern California State University and worked professionally in movie studio graphics design, doing storyboarding and logo design for the actress Tippi Hedren, until a visit to Hedren's Shambhala Preserve for retired media animals inspired her to leave the commercial sector. She later became a founding member of the conservation and infrastructure development group Build on Hope in Mozambique. Her art career has spanned almost four decades and is displayed in corporate and private collections all over the world..
Visiting Africa regularly, she often draws her subjects live, and has been known to use coffee to draw with if she runs out of paint in the bush. She initially focused on engraving, but in due to carpel tunnel syndrome she switched over to charcoal and water media. She is well known for the spirit and emotion she portrays in her animal subjects. London now focuses on water color and charcoal over Venetian plaster on canvass.
A profile of London and her work by Heather Campe called "Letting Loose" was published in the Mar/Apr 2007 edition of Wildlife Art Magazine.
Recent work includes artwork for non-profit preservation organizations such as the International rhino Association and The Cheetah Conservation Fund.
London is a Signature Artist member of The Society of Animal Artists. She was awarded the 2005 Award of Excellence for Kitabu.
London was the featured artist on ArtFairCalendar.com in August, 2007. In 2008 London's work was included in a series of conservation documentary videos produced by Captured Life Productions, filmed in South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Namibia and Cape Town.
London sells her artwork through two Galleries in the United States, The E. Lawrence gallery, the oldest fine art gallery in Aspen, Colorado and Mountain Trails Gallery in jackson, Wyoming. She also sells online and by exhibiting at fine art shows primarily in the United States,but also through agents in Italy, South Africa and Central America.
In 2011 and 2012, London won "Best in Show" or other awards at thirteen national exhibitions. In 2014, she was cited as "Best in Show" at three of the most prestigious shows in North America. Her work was selected for the annual "Artists for Conservation" 2015 calendar. Each year, she guides a group of her friends and collectors across Africa, introducing them to her favorite animal subjects and involving them in conservation projects across Botswana and South Africa. In 2012, she and her husband, oceanographer Jim Hart, founded Arts For Animals inc. This non-profit organization pairs artists with African school children to teach them artistic skills and wildlife conservation stewardship. In 2014, Arts for Animals influenced the lives of over 300 African students by connecting creativity with conservation. Their "Animal Protector" program has 500 members and hopes to gain 2500 more in 2015.
In 2014,she was nominated for the prestigious Simon Coombs conservation award through The Artists For Conservation Foundation.
London continues to expand Arts for Animals to other areas of Africa and exhibit her work worldwide.
- 2005 Award of Excellence, Society of Animal Artists
- 2014 nominated for Simon Coombs conservation award
- ^St. Louis Art Fair Featured Artist by Constance Mettler, accessed October 4, 2009
- ^ abLetting Loose by Heather Campe, Wildlife Art Magazine, Mar/Apr 2007
- ^Art Spirit: Virginia Beach Boardwalk Show 2007 accessed October 4, 2009
- ^A.E. London, by Jennifer G. Oliver, part of Academy of Art Character and Creature Design Notes. September 13, 2010.
- ^Society of Animal Artists membership list accessed October 4, 2009
- ^Artists Gallery
- ^profile of Chris Theibert, Captured Life Productions Documenting TeamArchived November 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.