Auer, P. (1995). The pragmatics of code-switching: A sequential approach. In Milroy, & Muysken, (eds.), pp. 115–135.
Auer, P. (ed.) (1998). Code-switching in conversation: Language, interaction, and identity. London: Routledge.
Backus, A. (2001). The role of semantic specificity in insertional codeswitching: Evidence from Dutch–Turkish. In Jacobson, R. (ed.), Codeswitching worldwide (vol. 2), pp. 125–154. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Bakhtin, M. (1981). The dialogic imagination: Four essays (edited by Holquist, M.). Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Bhatt, R. (2000). Optimal expressions in Indian English. English Language and Linguistics, 4, 69–95.
Bhatt, R. (2008). In other words: Language mixing, identity representations, and third space. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 12(2), 177–200.
Blommaert, J. (1992). Codeswitching and the exclusivity of social identities: Some data from Campus Kiswahili. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 13(1&2), 57–70.
Bolonyai, A. (2005). “Who was the best?”: Power, knowledge and rationality in bilingual girls’ code choices. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 9(1), 3–27.
Bolonyai, A. (2007). Hungarian, English, Hungarian–English code-switching: Triangle Corpus A. Ms., North Carolina State University, Department of English.
Boersma, P., & Hayes, B. (2001). Empirical tests of the gradual learning algorithm. Linguistic Inquiry, 32, 45–86.
Brown, R., & Gilman, A. (1960). The pronouns of power and solidarity. In Sebeok, T. (ed.), Style in language, pp. 253–276. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Brown, P., & Levinson, S. C. (1987). Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Burt, S. (1992). Codeswitching, convergence and compliance: The development of micro-community speech norms. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 13(1&2), 169–185.
Callahan, L. (2004). Spanish/English codeswitching in a written corpus. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Callahan, L. (2007). Spanish/English codeswitching in service encounters: Accommodation to the customer's language choice and perceived linguistic affiliation. Southwest Journal of Linguistics, 26(1), 15–38.
Camilleri, A. (2001). Language values and identities: Codeswitching in secondary classrooms in Malta. In Heller, M. & Martin-Jones, M. (eds.), Voices of authority, pp. 213–234. Westport, CT: Alex Publishing.
Canagarajah, S. (1995). The political economy of code choice in a “revolutionary society”: Tamil–English bilingualism in Jaffna, Sri Lanka. Language in Society, 24, 187–212.
Cramer, J. (2009). An optimality-theoretic approach to dialect code-switching. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for Applied Linguistics, Denver, CO, March 21–24.
Cutillas Espinosa, J. A. (2004). Meaningful variability: A sociolinguistically-grounded approach to variation in Optimality Theory. International Journal of English Studies, 4(2), 165–184.
Davies, E. (2008). Crossing les barricades: The use of French in some English newspaper articles. Language & Communication, 28, 225–241.
Davies, B., & Harré, R. (1990). Positioning: The social construction of selves. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, 20, 43–63.
De Fina, A. (2007). Code-switching and the construction of ethnic identity in a community of Practice. Language in Society, 36, 371–392.
Doran, M. (2004). Negotiating between Bourge and Racaille: “Verlan” as youth identity practice in suburban Paris. In Pavlenko, A. & Blackledge, A. (eds.), Negotiation of identities in multilingual contexts, pp. 93–124. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Eastman, C. (ed.) (1992). Codeswitching. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Eckert, P., & McConnell-Ginet, S. (2003). Language and gender. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gafaranga, J. (2001). Linguistic identities in talk-in-interaction: Order in bilingual conversation. Journal of Pragmatics, 33, 1901–1925.
Gal, S. (1979). Language shift: Social determinants of linguistic change in bilingual Austria. New York: Academic Press.
Gal, S. (1983). Comment. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 39, 63–72.
Gal, S. (1987). Code-switching and consciousness in the European periphery. American Ethnologist, 14(4), 637–653.
Gal, S. (1988). The political economy of code choice. In Heller, (ed.), pp. 245–264.
Gardner-Chloros, P. (2009). Code-switching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gardner-Chloros, P., Charles, R., & Cheshire, J. (2000). Parallel patterns? A comparison of monolingual speech and bilingual codeswitching discourse. Journal of Pragmatics, 32, 1305–1341.
Gardner-Chloros, P., & Finnis, K. (2002). Code-switching, gender and politeness: A study in the London Greek-Cypriot community. Actas, Proceedings II Simposio Internacional Bilinguismo, 1453–1469.
Gibbs, R. (1999). Intentions in the experience of meaning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Giles, H., & Coupland, N. (1991). Language: Contexts and consequences. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
Goffman, E. (1967). Interaction ritual. New York: Anchor Books.
Goffman, E. (1974). Frame analysis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Goffman, E. (1979). Footing. Semiotica, 25(1/2), 1–29.
Grice, H. P. (1975). Logic and conversation. In Cole, P. & Morgan, J. L. (eds.), Syntax and semantics (vol. 3): Speech acts. New York: Academic Press.
Grosjean, F. (1982). Life with two languages: An introduction to bilingualism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gross, S. (2000). Intentionality and the markedness model in literary codeswitching. Journal of Pragmatics, 32, 1283–1303.
Gumperz, J. (1982). Discourse strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Halliday, M. A. K. (1994). An introduction to functional grammar (2nd edn.). London: Edward Arnold.
Halmari, H., & Smith, W. (1994). Code-switching and register shift: Evidence from Finnish–English child bilingual conversation. Journal of Pragmatics, 21, 427–445.
Heck, F., Müller, G., Vogel, R., Fischer, S., Vikner, S., & Schmid, T. (2002). On the nature of the input in Optimality Theory. The Linguistic Review, 19, 345–376.
Heller, M. (1988a). Strategic ambiguity: Codeswitching in the management of conflict. In Heller, (ed.), pp. 77–96.
Heller, M. (ed.) (1988b). Codeswitching: Anthropological and sociolinguistic perspectives. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Heller, M. (1992). The politics of codeswitching and language choice. In Eastman, (ed.), pp. 124–142.
Heller, M. (1995). Code-switching and the politics of language. In Milroy, & Muysken, (eds.), pp. 158–174.
Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. London: McGraw-Hill.
Ide, S. (1989). Formal forms and discernment: Two neglected aspects of linguistic politeness. Multilingua, 8(2/3), 223–248.
Janney, R., & Arndt, H. (1992). Intracultural tact versus intercultural tact. In Watts, R. J., Ide, S. & Ehlich, K. (eds.), Politeness in language: Studies in its history, theory and practice, pp. 21–42. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Jørgensen, N. (1998). Children's acquisition of code-switching for powerwielding. In Auer, (ed.), pp. 237–258.
Kovács, T. (2010). The applicability of Optimality Theory for the analysis of bilingual grammar in the Hungarian–American bilingual community in North Carolina: A comprehensive description of the North Carolina Hungarian Club's code-switching patterns. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Sciences, Pécs, Hungary.
Koven, M. (2001). Comparing bilinguals’ quoted performances of self and others in telling of the same experience in two languages. Language in Society, 30, 513–558.
Lee, Y.-S. (2009). Korean–English code-switching and Optimality Theory. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for Applied Linguistics, Denver, CO, March 21–24.
Legendre, G., Miyata, Y., & Smolensky, P. (2006). The interaction of syntax and semantics: A harmonic grammar account of split transitivity. In Smolensky, P. & Legendre, G. (eds.), The harmonic mind: From neural computation to optimality-theoretic grammar, pp.417–452. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Levinson, S. (1995). Interactional biases in human thinking. In Goody, E. (ed.), Social intelligence and interaction, pp. 221–260. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Li, W. (1994). Three generations, two languages, one family: Language choice and language shift in a Chinese community in Britain. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Li, W. (1998). The “why” and “how” questions in the analysis of conversational code-switching. In Auer, (ed.), pp. 156–176.
Li, W. (2002). “What do you want me to say?” On the conversation analysis approach to bilingual interaction. Language in Society, 31, 159–180.
Li, W., & Milroy, L. (1995). Conversational codeswitching in a Chinese community in Britain: A sequential analysis. Journal of Pragmatics, 23, 281–299.
Lin, A. (1996). Bilingualism or linguistic segregation? Symbolic domination, resistance and code switching in Hong Kong schools. Linguistics and Education, 8, 49–84.
Linell, P. (1998). Approaching dialogue: Talk, interaction and contexts in dialogical perspectives. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Lipski, J. (1985). Linguistic aspects of Spanish–English language switching. Special Studies, 25. Center for Latin American Studies, Arizona State University, Phoenix.
MacWhinney, B. (2005). The emergence of grammar from perspective taking. In Pecher, D. & Zwaan, R. A. (eds.), Grounding cognition: The role of perception and action in memory, language, and thinking, pp. 198–223. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McClure, E., & McClure, M. (1988). Macro- and micro-sociolinguistic dimensions of code-switching. In Heller, (ed.), pp. 25–51.
Milroy, L., & Muysken, P. (eds.) (1995). One speaker, two languages: Cross-disciplinary perspectives on code-switching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mishoe, M. (1995). Dialect codeswitching among lower class socioeconomic speakers in the Southern United States: A sociolinguistic study. Ph.D. dissertation, University of South Carolina.
Myers-Scotton, C. (1988). Self-enhancing codeswitching as interactional power. Language & Communication, 8(3/4), 199–211.
Myers-Scotton, C. (1990). Elite closure as boundary maintenance: The case of Africa. In Weinstein, B. (ed.), Language policy and political development, pp. 25–42. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Myers-Scotton, C. (1993). Social motivations for codeswitching: Evidence from Africa. Oxford: Clarendon (Oxford University Press).
Myers-Scotton, C., & Bolonyai, A. (2001). Calculating speakers: Codeswitching in a rational choice model. Language in Society, 30, 1–28.
Myers-Scotton, C., & Jake, J. (1995). Matching lemmas in a bilingual competence and production model. Linguistics, 33, 981–1024.
Ochs, E. (1976). The universality of conversational postulates. Language in Society, 5, 67–80.
Ochs, E. (1992). Indexing gender. In Duranti, A. & Goodwin, C. (eds.), Rethinking context: Language as an interactive phenomenon, pp. 335–358. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pavlenko, A. (2004). “Stop doing that, ia komu skazala!”: Language choice and emotions in parent–child communication. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 25(2&3), 179–203.
Penman, R. (1990). Facework and politeness: Multiple goals in courtroom discourse. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 9(1–2), 15–38.
Pesetsky, D. (1997). Optimality Theory and syntax: Movement and pronunciation. In Archangeli, D. & Langendoen, T. (eds.), Optimality Theory: An overview, pp. 134–170. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Pfaff, C. (2001). “Kanaken in Alemmansitan”: Zaimoglu's representation of migrant language. Ms., Freie Universitaet, Berlin.
Poplack, S. (1988). Contrasting patterns of codeswitching in two communities. In Heller, (ed.), pp. 215–244.
Prince, A., & Smolensky, P. (2004). Optimality Theory: Constraint interaction in generative grammar. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Rampton, B. (1995). Crossing: Language and ethnicity among adolescents. Harlow: Longman.
Rindler-Schjerve, R. (1998). Code-switching as an indicator for language shift? Evidence from Sardinian–Italian bilingualism. In Jacobson, R. (ed.), Codeswitching worldwide (vol. 1), pp. 221–247. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Scollon, R., & Scollon, S. W. (1995). Intercultural communication: A discourse approach. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Schiffrin, D. (1984). Jewish argument as sociability. Language in Society, 13(3), 311–335.
Schiffrin, D. (2006). In other words: Variation in reference and narrative. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Slobin, D. (1996). From “thought and language” to “thinking for speaking”. In Gumperz, J. & Levinson, S. (eds.), Rethinking linguistic relativity, pp. 70–96. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Stroud, D. (1998). Perspectives on cultural variability of discourse and some implications for code-switching. In Auer, (ed.), pp. 321–348.
Stroud, C. (2004). The performativity of codeswitching. International Journal of Bilingualism, 8(2), 145–166.
Valdés-Fallis, G. (1976). Code-switching in bilingual Chicano poetry. Hispania, 59, 877–886.
Watts, R. (1999). Language and politeness in early eighteenth century Britain. Pragmatics, 9(1), 5–20.
Wierzbicka, A. (1991). Cross-cultural pragmatics: The semantics of human interaction. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Woolard, K. (1988). Codeswitching and comedy in Catalonia. In Heller, (ed.), pp. 53–76.
Woolard, K. (1999). Simultaneity and bivalency as strategies in bilingualism. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 8(1), 3–29.
Zentella, A. C. (1997). Growing up bilingual. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Code-mixing and code-switching are widespread phenomena in bilingual communities where speakers use their native tongue (L1) and their second language (L2) in different domains. The aim of this paper is to provide a complete overview over the phenomenon of code-switching and code-mixing. This paper presents why bilinguals mix two languages and switch back and forth between two languages and what triggers them to mix and switch their languages when they speak. The term of ‘code-switching’ (CS) refer to the alternate use of two or more languages in an extended stretch of discourse, where the switch takes place at sentence or clause boundaries. As many have pointed out, however, the term code-mixing it tends to attract negative associations, giving (especially lay readers) the value-loaded impression that ‘mixing’ languages is symptomatic of bad or pathological language behavior. A code may be a language or a variety or style of a language; the term code mixing emphasizes hybridization, and the term code-switching emphasizes movement from one language to another.
Key words: Code Switching, Code Mixing, English classroom
The aim of this paper is to provide a complete overview over the phenomenon of code-switching and code-mixing. This paper presents why bilinguals mix two languages and switch back and forth between two languages and what triggers them to mix and switch their languages when they speak. These bilingual phenomena are called ‘code-mixing’ and ‘code-switching’ and these are ordinary phenomena in the area of bilingualism. These phenomena occur when bilinguals substitute a word or phrase from one language to another language.
Code-mixing and code-switching are widespread phenomena in bilingual communities where speakers use their native tongue (L1) and their second language (L2) in different domains. However, it is not always the case where each distinct language is exclusively used in one particular domain. In order to help bilingual kids not to be confused with two languages and not to be alienated in monolingual society, it is very critical to make both bilinguals and monolinguals familiar with codes witching and code-mixing. It would be much better for other people to know about certain bilingual phenomena and try to accept the bilingual phenomena naturally, so that they could see how much social and cultural aspects affect bilinguals’ language and learn how bilinguals and their monolingual interlocutors should lead to smooth conversation.
In a language contact situation, the process of code mixing, code switching and interference do take place. Code mixing is the intra-sentential switching whereas code switching is the inter-sentential switching. Language contact sometimes occurs when there is an increased social interaction between people who living as neighborhood and have traditionally spoken different languages. But more frequently it is initiated by the spread of languages of power and prestige. Faltis (1989).
This paper deals with “Code switching and Code Mixing” in English classroom. This essay tries to discuss more about “how Code switching and Code Mixing occurs in English classroom? This essay begins by explaining the concept of ‘Code-Switching and Code-Mixing’, and elaborate more about definition of code itself and continuo with the definition of ‘Code Switching and Code Mixing’, the differences between code switching and code mixing, advantages/significance of Code Switching and Code Mixing, steps of conducting Code Switching and Code Mixingand types of Code- switching and Code- mixingthen describing the use of ‘Code-Switching and Code-Mixing’ in English classroom.
CONCEPT OF ‘CODE-SWITCHING AND CODE-MIXING’
a.Definition of Code-Switching and Code-Mixing’
Based on David C.S. Li (2008) that the term of ‘code-switching’ (CS) refer to the alternate use of two or more languages in an extended stretch of discourse, where the switch takes place at sentence or clause boundaries. Then the term of ‘code-mixing’ (CM) is preferred. As many have pointed out, however, the term code-mixing it tends to attract negative associations, giving (especially lay readers) the value-loaded impression that ‘mixing’ languages is symptomatic of bad or pathological language behavior.
The second definition explored by Fischer (1972) suggests that code switching or inter-sentential code-alternation occurs when a bilingual speaker uses more than one language in a single utterance above the clause level to appropriately convey his/her intents. That language or code choice in communities where bilingualism or multilingualism is the norm should be analyzed in the context where the speech is produced. According to Fischer (1972) state that code mixing also called intra-sentential code switching or intra-sentential code-alternation occurs when speakers use two or more languages below clause level within one social situation. Patterns of code switching are found to be different from one another because of several distinct processes such as ‘insertion’, ‘alternation’ and ‘congruent lexicalization’. These three processes correspond to dominant models, and approaches (Muysken, 2000:3).
The third theory about code switching and code mixing elaborate by Poplack “Code-switches will tend to occur at points in discourse where juxtaposition of L1 and L2 elements does not violate a syntactic rule of either language, e.i., at points around which the surface structures of the two languages map onto each other. According to this simple constraint, a switch is inhibited from occurring within a constituent generated by a rule from one language which is not shared by the other”(Poplack, 1980:586).
b.Difference between Code-switching and Code-mixing
-Maschler (1998) defines code mixing or a mixed code as “using two languages such that a third, new code emerges, in which elements from the two languages are incorporated into a structurally definable pattern” (p.125).
-Bokamba (1989) defines both concepts thus: “Code-switching is the mixing of words, phrases and sentences from two distinct grammatical (sub) systems across sentence boundaries within the same speech event… code-mixing is the embedding of various linguistic units such as affixes (bound morphemes), words (unbound morphemes), phrases and clauses from a cooperative activity where the participants, in order to in infer what is intended, must reconcile what they hear with what they understand. “
-Hymes (1976) defines only code-switching as “a common term for alternative use of two or more language, varieties of a language or even speech styles
c.Significance of Code Switching and Code Mixing
There are some significance of Code Switching and Code Mixing in the class room. And I try to identify them into three parts of functions, they are:
-Code switching in a bilingual community context means that code switching can be used for self expression and is a way of modifying language for the sake of personal intentions. And may be used in order to build intimate interpersonal relationships among members of a bilingual community (Holmes, 1992:275).
-The function of teachers’ code switching is not always performed consciously; which means that the teacher is not always aware of the functions and outcomes of the code switching process. These functions are listed as topic switch, affective functions, and repetitive functions by Mattson and Burenhult (1999:61).
-The function of students’ code switching; The first function of student code switch is equivalence, The next function to be introduced is floor-holding, The third consideration in students’ code switching is reiteration, which is pointed by Eldridge as: “messages are reinforced, emphasized, or clarified where the message has already been transmitted in one code, but not understood” (1996:306). The last function of students’ code switching to be introduced here is conflict control.
d.Code switching and Code Mixing in practice
Muysken (1995) proposed constraints are:
·The Free-morpheme Constraint: code-switching cannot occur between bound morphemes.
·The Equivalence Constraint: code-switching can occur only in positions where "the order of any two sentence elements, one before and one after the switch, is not excluded in either language." Thus, the sentence: "I like you porque eres simpático." ("I like you because you are nice.") Is allowed because it obeys the relative clause formation rules of Spanish and English.
·The Closed-class Constraint: closed class items (pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, etc.), cannot be switched.
·The Matrix Language Frame model distinguishes the roles of the participant languages.
·The Functional Head Constraint: code-switching cannot occur between a functionalhead (a complementizer, a determiner, an inflection, etc.) and its complement (sentence, noun-phrase, verb-phrase).
Suggest by Greene and Walker (2004):
-Make certain teacher goals are communicated in a clear manner and that the students understand those goals.
-Explain how and when certain language usage is or is not appropriate.
-Make sure students understand how certain contexts require code-switching.
-Demonstrate code-switching in the classroom.
-Affirm for students that their language is viable and valuable.
-Make sure students understand that you understand the historical importance of their language.
-Study the historical development of Black English and “Standard English.”
-Develop culturally reflective assignments and activities with a focus on diversity. (For example: assigning students to give a tribute speech on someone in their home community in the dialect or language in which the person would speak).
e.Types of Code- switching and Code- mixing
Types of code-switching based on (Poplack 1980)
·Intersentential switching occurs outside the sentence or the clause level (i.e. at sentence or clause boundaries). It is sometimes called "extrasentential" switching.
·Intra-sentential switching occurs within a sentence or a clause.
·Tag-switching is the switching of either a tag phrase or a word, or both, from language-B to language-A, (common intra-sentential switches).
·Intra-word switching occurs within a word, itself, such as at a morpheme boundary.
Types of code-mixing based onMuysken (2000)
The concept of insertion is defined as insertion of material such as lexical items or entire constituents from one language into a structure from the other language. According to Muysken (2000), approaches that depart from the notion of insertion view the constraints in terms of the structural properties of some base or matrix structure. Here the process of code-mixing is conceived as something akin to borrowing: the insertion of an alien lexical of phrasal.
Approaches departing from alternation (associated with the Poplack (1980)) view the constraints on mixing in terms of the compatibility or equivalence of the languages involved at the switch point (Muysken, 2000). Conjunctions and appositions are incorporated through adjunction rather than insertion (2000). Verbs are often incorporated through adjunction to a helping verb. Language alternation is a normal, common, and important aspect of bilingualism (Grosjean, 1982; Pennington, 1995).
The notion of congruent lexicalization underlies the study of style shifting and dialect/standard variation, as in the work of Labov (1972) and Trudgill (1986), rather than bilingual language use proper (Muysken, 2000). Congruent lexicalization is akin to language variation and style shifting: switching is grammatically unconstrained and can be characterized in terms of alternative lexical insertions. Linguistic convergence feeds into congruent lexicalization and the two processes may reinforce each other. Some cases of word-internal mixing can be viewed as congruent lexicalization (2000: 221).
THEUSE OF ‘CODE SWITCHING AND CODE MIXING’ ENGLISH CLASSROOM
a.Kamisah (2009) in her study of content-based lectures found that CS/CM served some functions such as signaling topic change, giving and clarifying explanation, enacting social relationships and aggravating and mitigating messages. Vigorous influence of science and technology in education is also another factor contributing to CS/CM behavior in the classroom.
b.El-Fiki (1999) in her investigation of the CM phenomenon in a university teaching context in Libya found that despite the country’s language policy which promotes the maintenance and purification of Arabic, CM was a dominant feature in the discourse examined.
c.Canagarajah (1995) reported on the micro- and macro- functions of CS/CM in Sri Lankan ESL classrooms. The former includes classroom management and content transmission, and the latter includes social issues outside the classroom that may have implications on education.
·Examples of code-switching and Code mixing
Code-Mixing and Code-Switching terms in sociolinguistics for language and especially speech that draws to differing extents on at least two languages combined in different ways, as when a Malay/English bilingual says: This morning I hantar my baby tu dekat babysitter tu lah (hantar took, tu dekat to the, lah a particle marking solidarity). A code may be a language or a variety or style of a language; the term code mixing emphasizes hybridization, and the term code-switching emphasizes movement from one language to another.
-Examples of code-switching Bautista (1998a)
oThanks for all the kwentos. „Thanks for all the stories.‟ (English plural inflection in a Tagalog word).
oMike and I are so depressed by the turn of events, sana naman magkaturn-around. Mike and I are so depressed by the turn of events; hopefully there will be a turn-around.‟ (Tagalog affixation in an English word).
-Examples Code mixing
a)Why make Carol sentarse atras
b)pa'que everybody sit at the back so that has to move
c)pa'que se salga so that [she] may get out(Spanish / English; Poplack 1980: 589).
Term of ‘code-mixing’ and ‘code-switching’ is an ordinary phenomenon in the area of bilingualism. These phenomena occur when bilinguals substitute a word or phrase from one language to another language.Code-mixing and code-switching are widespread phenomena in bilingual communities where speakers use their native tongue (L1) and their second language (L2) in different domains.In monolingual societies, people may think that code-switching and code mixing is very unnatural. With regard to the point of view of code-mixing and code-switching, people used to think about code-mixing and code-switching negatively. However, it is inevitable to notice that people usually switch and mix their languages in bilingual and/or multilingual societies.These opinions might make bilinguals feel they have a lack of both languages and they are not included in both cultures either. However, code-mixing and Code-switching may influence bilinguals’ languages positively.Code-switched is found when the teachers from the target language to English in order to maintain classroom order, to create solidarity or empathy, to cover lack of experience or strategies, to rephrase or modify their speech.
Ahmad, B.H. (2009). Teachers’ Code-Switching in Classroom Instructions for Low English Proficient Learners. English Language Teaching Journal. Vol. 2, No.2, pp. 49-55, June 2009. www.ccsnet.org/journal.html. December -5th- 2011.
Akhondi, M; Malayeri, F.A & Samad, A.A. (2010). Assessing Speaking: Manipulating the facet of the length of prompt in an Oral Proficiency Interview setting. Iranian EFL Journal. Vol. 6, No.3, pp. 86-108 December @2010. http://www.iranian-efl-journal.com. December-2nd-2011.
Andreou, G. (2007). Phonological Awareness in Bilingual and Trilingual Schoolchildren. Linguistic Journal. Volume 3 Issue 3, pp. 8-15, @2007. http://www.linguistics-journal.com. December-4th-2011.
Ariffin, K & Husin, M S. (2011) Code-switching and Code-mixing of English and Bahasa Malaysia in Content-Based Classrooms: Frequency and Attitudes. Linguistic Journal. Vol. 5, pp. 220-247 @2011.http://www.linguistics-journal.com_June-2011. December – 02nd – 2011.
Ayeomoni, M.O. (2006). Code-Switching and Code-Mixing:Style of Language Use in Childhood in Yoruba Speech Community. Nordic Journal of African Studies. Vol. 15, No.1, pp. 90–99@2006. http://www.nordic-journal.com. December-4th-2011.
Borlongan, A.M. (2009). Tagalog-English Code-Switching in English Language Classes: Frequency and Forms. TESOL Journal. Vol. 1, pp. 28-42 ©2009. http://www.tesol-journal.com.Desember-3rd-2011.
Claros, M.S.C & Isharyanti, N. (2009). Code switching and code mixing in internet chatting: between “yes”, “ya”, and “si” A Case Study. The Jaltcall Journal. Vol. 5, No.3, pp. 67-78 @2009. http://www.jaltcall-journal.com. Desember-3rd-2011.
David C.S. (2008).Understanding mixed code and classroom code-switching: myths and realities. New Horizons Journal. Vol. 5, No. 6, pp. 75-87@Dec 2008. http://www.newhorizonsineducation.com. December – 4th-2011.
Ellis, R. (2008). Learner Beliefs and Language Learning. Asian EFL Journal. Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 7-25@2008. http://www.asian-efl-journal.com. December-2nd-2011.
Geetha, V & Kamatchi, B. (2010). Code Mixing and Code Switching in Tamil Proverbs. Language in India Journal. Vol.10, No. 5, pp. 232-241, May 2010.www.languageinindia.com. December-4th-2011.
Greene, D. & Walker, F. (2004). “Recommendations to Public Speaking Instructors for the Negotiation of Code-switching Practices among Black English-speaking African American Students.” The Journal of Negro Education 73(4), p. 435.
Hua, L. (2008). Reflection can change EFL Teachers beliefs and teaching practice. Chinese EFL Journal. Vol. 1, Issue 1, pp. 62-77. January 2008. http://www.chinese-efl-journal.com. December – 1st-2011.
Kim, E. (2006). Reasons and Motivations for Code-Mixing and Code-Switching. TESOL Journal. Vol.4, No.1, pp. 43-61 @2006. http://www.tesol-journal.com.Desember-3rd-2011.
Morshedian, M. (2008). The Role of Initial English as Foreign Language Proficiency in Lexical Attrition/Retention of Iranian Learners: Is Productive or the Receptive Word Knowledge of Learned Nouns More Likely to Be Lost? The Linguistics Journal. Vol.3, issue 1, pp. 75-99 @2008. http://www.linguistics-journal.com. December-4th-2011.
Poplack, Shana (2004). "Code-Switching". In U. Ammon, N. Dittmar, K.J. Mattheier and P. Trudgill. Sociolinguistics. An International Handbook of the Science of Language and Society (2nd ed.). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 589–96.
Redouane, R (2005). ISB4: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism, ed. James Cohen, Kara T. McAlister, Kellie Rolstad, and Jeff MacSwan, 1921-1933. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
Sayahi, L. (2001). Code Switching in Conversation: Language, Interaction, and Identity, Modern Language Journal. Vol. 85, No.2, p.152 @2001. http://www.modernlanguage-journal.com. December – 1st-2011.
Sert, O. (2005). The Functions of Code Switching in ELT Classrooms. The Internet TESL Journal. Vol. XI, No. 8, August 2005. http://iteslj.org/. http://iteslj.org/Articles/Sert-CodeSwitching.html. Desember-3rd-2011.
Then, D. C-O & Dr Su-Hie Ting. (2009). Demystifying the notion of teacher code-switching for student comprehension. English as an International Language Journal. Volume 5, pp. 182-197@2009. http://www.international-language.com. December- 3rd-2011.
Wei, L. (2010). Specifying Context: A Way to Decoding Legal Language. The Asian ESP Journal. Vol. 6, pp. 58-68@2010. http://www.asian-esp-journal.com. December-3rd-2011.
Yusuf, Y.Q. (2009). A Pragmatics Analysis of a Teacher’s Code- Switching in a Bilingual Classroom. The Linguistics Journal. Vol.4, issue 2, pp. 6-39 @2009. http://www.linguistics-journal.com. December-4th-2011.