Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work.
The pursuit of knowledge is at the heart of Frankenstein, as Victor attempts to surge beyond accepted human limits and access the secret of life. Likewise, Robert Walton attempts to surpass previous human explorations by endeavoring to reach the North Pole. This ruthless pursuit of knowledge, of the light (see “Light and Fire”), proves dangerous, as Victor’s act of creation eventually results in the destruction of everyone dear to him, and Walton finds himself perilously trapped between sheets of ice. Whereas Victor’s obsessive hatred of the monster drives him to his death, Walton ultimately pulls back from his treacherous mission, having learned from Victor’s example how destructive the thirst for knowledge can be.
The sublime natural world, embraced by Romanticism (late eighteenth century to mid-nineteenth century) as a source of unrestrained emotional experience for the individual, initially offers characters the possibility of spiritual renewal. Mired in depression and remorse after the deaths of William and Justine, for which he feels responsible, Victor heads to the mountains to lift his spirits. Likewise, after a hellish winter of cold and abandonment, the monster feels his heart lighten as spring arrives. The influence of nature on mood is evident throughout the novel, but for Victor, the natural world’s power to console him wanes when he realizes that the monster will haunt him no matter where he goes. By the end, as Victor chases the monster obsessively, nature, in the form of the Arctic desert, functions simply as the symbolic backdrop for his primal struggle against the monster.
Obviously, this theme pervades the entire novel, as the monster lies at the center of the action. Eight feet tall and hideously ugly, the monster is rejected by society. However, his monstrosity results not only from his grotesque appearance but also from the unnatural manner of his creation, which involves the secretive animation of a mix of stolen body parts and strange chemicals. He is a product not of collaborative scientific effort but of dark, supernatural workings.
The monster is only the most literal of a number of monstrous entities in the novel, including the knowledge that Victor used to create the monster (see “Dangerous Knowledge”). One can argue that Victor himself is a kind of monster, as his ambition, secrecy, and selfishness alienate him from human society. Ordinary on the outside, he may be the true “monster” inside, as he is eventually consumed by an obsessive hatred of his creation. Finally, many critics have described the novel itself as monstrous, a stitched-together combination of different voices, texts, and tenses (see Texts).
Victor conceives of science as a mystery to be probed; its secrets, once discovered, must be jealously guarded. He considers M. Krempe, the natural philosopher he meets at Ingolstadt, a model scientist: “an uncouth man, but deeply imbued in the secrets of his science.” Victor’s entire obsession with creating life is shrouded in secrecy, and his obsession with destroying the monster remains equally secret until Walton hears his tale.
Whereas Victor continues in his secrecy out of shame and guilt, the monster is forced into seclusion by his grotesque appearance. Walton serves as the final confessor for both, and their tragic relationship becomes immortalized in Walton’s letters. In confessing all just before he dies, Victor escapes the stifling secrecy that has ruined his life; likewise, the monster takes advantage of Walton’s presence to forge a human connection, hoping desperately that at last someone will understand, and empathize with, his miserable existence.
More main ideas from Frankenstein
Show MoreDanielle Bouquio
Frankenstein: The Dangerous Pursuit of Knowledge
Over the past few centuries, the intellectuals of society have made countless advances in science and the development of technology, which, to different degrees, have all benefitted mankind. These scientific discoveries are a result of man’s thirst for and dedication to acquiring knowledge, information, and power. The innate curiosity and desire for understanding in an individual can grow so immense that his or her moral and ethical boundaries erode, which results in disastrous consequences for all who are involved. The novel Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley, is both a warning and a plea about the dangers of misusing academic prowess and the…show more content…
However, if he does die, then it seems important to question whether the fleeting chance of success was worth it. Once he comes into contact with Victor, Frankenstein can easily see bits of himself before the creation in Walton’s enthusiasm; “You seek for knowledge and wisdom, as I once did; and I ardently hope that the gratification of your wishes may not be a serpent sting to you, as mine has been” (17). Walton is readily enticed by the tale of this strangely damaged man, despite the cautionary element. His desire for companionship draws him to Victor, since he is another intellectual with whom he might share his success. Victor too desires a friend, but he instead needs someone to share in his misery. Ironically, the monster also had a saddened tale to share when he first meets Victor and explains to him his existence. Victor at the time was not willing to offer sympathy, so it is interesting that the same objective seems to be a factor in his decision to share his misfortune with Walton.
Victor begins his story with a very comfortable and safe childhood that seems a stark contrast from the defeated man he has grown into. He tells Walton about his early education and his fascination with the mysteries of the natural world. Even though the other aspects of his life at this point sound idyllic, there is a sure sense of doom in the way he speaks of